How Parental Attitudes Affect Child Development: A Review of Maria Ziemska's Book
Parental attitudes are the emotional tendencies of parents to behave in a certain way towards their children. They reflect the values, beliefs and opinions of parents about their children and their role as caregivers. Parental attitudes can have a significant impact on the personality, well-being and achievements of children.
In her book \"Postawy Rodzicielskie\" (Parental Attitudes), Maria Ziemska, a Polish psychologist and educator, presents a comprehensive analysis of different types of parental attitudes and their consequences for child development. She draws on various theories and empirical studies to describe the characteristics, origins and effects of parental attitudes. She also provides practical suggestions for parents who want to improve their relationships with their children and foster their optimal growth.
Ziemska distinguishes between proper and improper parental attitudes. Proper parental attitudes are those that create favorable psychosocial conditions for the normal development of children. They include acceptance, cooperation, autonomy and consistency. Improper parental attitudes are those that negatively influence the formation of children's personality. They include rejection, overprotection, domination and inconsistency.
Acceptance is the attitude of accepting the child as he or she is, with his or her physical, mental and emotional characteristics. It means loving and appreciating the child for being him or herself, not for what he or she does. Acceptance fosters the child's sense of security, self-esteem and happiness. It also helps the child develop the ability to form lasting emotional bonds, express feelings and empathize with others.
Cooperation is the attitude of engaging and involving the child in the family life, activities and affairs, according to his or her age and developmental abilities. It means respecting the child's opinions, preferences and decisions, as well as encouraging him or her to participate in various tasks and responsibilities. Cooperation enhances the child's sense of belonging, competence and value. It also helps the child develop the skills of communication, cooperation and problem-solving.
Autonomy is the attitude of granting the child a reasonable degree of freedom and independence in his or her actions and choices. It means supporting the child's exploration, experimentation and learning, as well as allowing him or her to make mistakes and face consequences. Autonomy fosters the child's sense of agency, confidence and creativity. It also helps the child develop the traits of responsibility, initiative and self-regulation.
Consistency is the attitude of maintaining a stable and predictable pattern of behavior towards the child. It means following clear and reasonable rules and expectations, as well as providing positive reinforcement and constructive feedback. Consistency fosters the child's sense of order, security and trust. It also helps the child develop the habits of discipline, compliance and adaptation.
Rejection is the attitude of rejecting or neglecting the child's needs, feelings and interests. It means ignoring, criticizing or ridiculing the child for being him or herself, not for what he or she does. Rejection damages the child's sense of security, self-esteem and happiness. It also hinders the child's ability to form lasting emotional bonds, express feelings and empathize with others.
Overprotection is the attitude of protecting or controlling the child excessively or unnecessarily. It means interfering with or limiting the child's exploration, experimentation and learning, as well as preventing him or her from making mistakes and facing consequences. Overprotection impairs the child's sense of agency, confidence and creativity. It also hinders the child's development of responsibility, initiative and self-regulation.
Domination is the attitude of imposing one's will or authority on the child without regard for his or her opinions, preferences and decisions. It means demanding obedience or conformity from the child without explanation or justification. Domination undermines the child's sense of belonging, competence and value. It also hinders the child's development of communication, cooperation and problem-solving skills.
Inconsistency is the attitude of changing one's behavior towards the child unpredictably or arbitrarily. It means violating or altering rules and expectations without reason or warning, as well as providing inconsistent reinforcement and feedback. Inconsistency confuses
the child's sense of order, security and trust. It also hinders